We all know cities produce waste, but it’s what those cities do with it that makes such a difference to the environment.
The BBC has explored how cities could use the waste to stop this one-way consumption.
Writer Mitchell Joachim, from the BBC, has explored how waste can be upcycled, rather than recycled, and to consider the design of consumables before they become landfill.
Mr Joachim said items designed for obsolescence should be outlawed and products must be manufactured with the intent to reuse, disassemble, take back or upcycle.
Some cities turn their waste into energy and others are exploring how they could make their waste into simple shapes for assembly so eventually the city could not be distinguished from the waste.
Mr Joachim and The BBC’s Building Tomorrow explores how the waste could be refabricated into urban spaces and how 3-D printing has exhausting capabilities if used on large scales.
The city that is imagined would use ‘smart refuse’ with raw material adapted for use and the proposal, featured on the program, also uses computers to connect each building block, so they can learn.
Until this type of city can be built from waste, others continue to strive for zero waste across the world, by diverting items from landfill to recycling and compost.